What is a Comprehensive Land use Plan?
Here are 9 Frequently Asked Questions about Comprehensive Land Use Plans!
What is a Comprehensive Land Use Plan?
The Comprehensive Land Use Plan is an essential document for local government units.
In the Philippine context, a comprehensive land use plan (CLUP) is a
“rational approach of allocating available land resources as equitably as possible among competing user groups and for different functions consistent with the development plan of the area… .”(Section 3, Republic Act 7279)
It is one of two documents mandated by the Local Government Code (Republic Act 7160) that must be prepared by local government units in the Philippines. The other is the Comprehensive Development Plan.
Why is a Comprehensive Land Use Plan important for a local government unit?
The Comprehensive Land Use Plan is an instrument for the local government unit to allocate available land resources to different sectors of its territory for different functions.
Land is finite, immobile, has varying physical attributes, and can be used in multiple ways.
Every phenomenon that affects the population influences the territory of the local government unit.
The Comprehensive Land Use Plan allows the local government unit to communicate to various sectors of the population how it plans to cater to their needs of land resources.
The Comprehensive Land Use Plan also materializes the vision of the local government for the territory on its land resources.
How is a Comprehensive Land Use Plan different from other local plans required from local government units?
The Comprehensive Land Use Plan is a document that encompasses the whole territory of the local government unit.
No area in the municipality must be left unplanned.
The municipal territory includes municipal land area and municipal waters.
Other local plans required by national agencies typically cover only portions and certain concerns of the municipality. Moreover, an updated Comprehensive Land Use Plan can be a resource hub for other local plans.
How is a Comprehensive Land Use Plan formulated?
The Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board prescribes a 12-step process for the formulation of a Comprehensive Land Use Plan.
The process starts with organizing the local government for planning purposes and “ends” with monitoring and evaluation of the plan.
Being an iterative process, the Comprehensive Land Use Planning process is cyclical.
The results of the monitoring and evaluation must be used as input into another cycle of the process.
The HLURB has published a three-volume guidebook to help local governments formulate and update their Comprehensive Land Use Plans.
Principles and approaches important to the formulation of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan are:
- (1) the watershed approach, the territory is analyzed based on common drainage basins
- (2) inclusive and expansive governance, collaborative partnerships among all stakeholders
- (3) the co-management principle, shared responsibility among different levels of governance
- (4) gender responsiveness and sensitivity, all needs of all sectors of the population are integrated into the plan
- (5) bottom-up approach, integrating plans from the barangay, through the barangay development plans, and,
- (6) top-to-bottom approach. alignment with provincial, regional and national plans and frameworks
How can local government units formulate and update their Comprehensive Land Use Plans regularly?
Being the Chief Executive, the mayor is the key official for ensuring that Comprehensive Land Use Plans are formulated and updated regularly.
The mayor is given powers by the Local Government Code (Section 106, Section 444) that is sufficient to mobilize the local government into regularly planning and implementing Comprehensive Land Use Plans.
Of course, members of the Local Development Council, must be involved in the initial mobilization and organization for the comprehensive land use planning process..
The Local Planning and Development Office (LPDO) can also be encouraged to maintain an updated and accessible database.
As the Technical Secretariat of the Local Development Council, the LPDO can be the hub of all relevant data and information for land use.
How many years should a Comprehensive Land Use Plan cover?
At present, the typical CLUP covers 8 to 10 years.
Serote (2004) recommends a 30-year planning period with revisions every six years. In 2000s, the population of the Philippines was estimated to double after around 30 years.
The doubling time of the population of a local territory is a convenient alternative for the planning period before a full revision of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (Serote 2004).
How long is the process of formulating a Comprehensive Land Use Plan?
The Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board provides a sample Comprehensive Land Use Planning schedule that covers 18 months.
The process may extend to a longer period because of issues in the review process of appropriate bodies (Step 10).
Many external consultants shorten the process as much as possible, in consideration of the funding available from the local government unit.
In my professional experience, I was involved in a CLUP process that only covered 4 months from Step 1 (Organize) to Step 8 (Drafting the Zoning Ordinance).
The municipal government has recently updated its Ecological Profile, which drastically lessened the effort for Step 4 (Analyze the Situation).
Moreover, our Land Use Planner and Team Leader was Prof. Meliton Juanico, a veteran urban planner, so the process took less time.
How much will a Comprehensive Land Use Plan process cost a local government unit?
Cost is the biggest issue for local governments in updating their CLUPs.
Formulating the Comprehensive Land Use Plan is ideally part of the regular responsibilities of the Local Development Council, technically supported by the Local Planning and Development Office (RA 7160).
However, because of general lack of time and technical capacity (e.g., Salazar-Quitalig and Orale 2016), local governments tend to hire external consultants to complete their Comprehensive Land Use Plans.
The Municipality of Hinoba-an, a 1st class municipality of Negros Occidental, published in 2019 an Invitation to Bid on PhilGEPS for their Enhanced Comprehensive Land Use Plan amounting to P850,000.
Besides consultant fees, additional costs may be incurred for travel expenses, food for workshops and meetings, and the daily opportunity cost of officials involved in the planning process.
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What are penalties for local officials of a local government unit without an updated Comprehensive Land Use Plan?
A Comprehensive Land Use Plan is considered updated when it covers at least the current year.
In my own opinion, with planning principles in mind, a CLUP is updated when it covers at least the next three years, guiding the annual investment plans (AIP) of the incumbent Local Chief Executive.
The 2018 HLURB Annual Report states that 91% of LGUs have approved CLUPs, though the report has no information on the percentage of LGUs with updated CLUPs. (Update! A status list of CLUP for all LGUs is available as of 2nd quarter of 2020)
You can see CLUP approval statistics on a monitoring dashboard by EnP. Oshean Lee Garonita.
The Department of Community and Environmental Resource Planning of UP Los Banos also cites various information about local planning from a study of the Philippine Institute of Development Studies (PIDS).
LGUs that fail to comply with the requirements for the preparation/updating of CDPs and CLUPs by December 10, 2021 (DILG MC 2021-049) will be subjected to appropriate administrative case…pursuant to Section 60 of the Local Government Code.
Section 60. Grounds for Disciplinary Actions. – An elective local official may be disciplined, suspended, or removed from office on any of the following grounds…
(c) Dishonesty, oppression, misconduct in office, gross negligence, or dereliction of dutyLocal Government Code of 1991 (RA 7160)
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